Hilary-Joy Virtanen, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Finnish & Nordic Studies at Finlandia University. She is an ethnologist specializing in Nordic and Upper Midwestern (USA) cultural practices, including festivals, traditional arts, oral genres, music, folk dance, ethnic and national dress, and heritage language maintenance. Her interests also include nineteenth-century national romanticism, particularly in Finland, as well as 1905–1920, a period of intense labor unrest and the entrance of the United States into World War I. This historical period is reflected in labor music and laborlore (especially songs associated with the Industrial Workers of the World). Virtanen’s research in the iron and copper mining regions of the Upper Midwest and the industrial city of Tampere, Finland, are related through Finnish American migration and similar historical developments in each place.